The family structure is the composition of the family and its members, as well as the totality of their relationships (Eidemiller E. G., Justitsky V. V., 2001). The structure of the family is also understood as a way of ensuring its unity and functioning as a social institution (Kharchev A. G., 1964, p. 55).
In order for children to fully develop and display their abilities, they must grow up in a responsive social environment. This is especially evident when comparing the achievements of children who were raised in a normal family environment with those who grew up in orphanages. The development conditions of each child can be placed on a continuous scale, ranging from the most optimal to the most unfavorable (such as those that exist, for example, in orphanages). Naturally, the worse the conditions in which the child grows, the more deviates from the norm of its development (Kraig G., p. 287).
“People who did not experience parental and family love in childhood became unhappy with age. It is not for nothing that widowhood and orphanhood have always been considered a great and irreparable grief. To offend an orphan or a widow was to commit one of the most deadly sins. Growing up and getting on their feet, orphans became ordinary laypeople, but the wound of orphanhood never overgrown in the heart of each of them” (Belov V. I., 1982, p. 112).
I. S. Kohn points out that the importance of the family as the primary unit of society and the most important factor of socialization is difficult to exaggerate. Talking about the death of a family does not take into account three important circumstances. First, only direct parental affection and care can provide the emotional warmth that a child needs, especially in the first years of life. Secondly, the family is the primary group in which not only children and parents, but also children of different ages interact intimately. In the family, children gradually become attached to the complex world of adults. The author points out that the pupils of even the best pre-school orphanages lag behind in some aspects from children of the same age who are brought up in a family. According to I. S. Kon, the reason lies in the fact that they are almost isolated from the Frank conversations of adults and this makes it difficult for them to get acquainted with some aspects of life: the relationship between adults at work, the price of money, etc. third, parental feelings and care for children are natural human feelings that enrich the individual as a person (Kon I. S, 1991).