Family and marriage
The family is based on marriage relations, in which both the natural and social nature of a person is manifested, both the material (social being) and the spiritual (social consciousness)…

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In many cultures, the level of relationship between the family and its progenitors is quite high. This applies even to American families, where early separation from the parent family is…

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And yet – the family broke up. What happens then, when it is possible to create a second family? When a family breaks up, former spouses are often in conflict.…

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Family life cycle

According To D. levy, the study of the family life cycle requires a longitudinal approach. This means that the family goes through certain stages in its development, similar to those that the individual goes through in the process of ontogenesis. The stages of the family’s life cycle are associated with the creation of a family, with the appearance of new family members and the “departure” of old ones. These changes in the composition of the family largely change its role functioning.

Carter and Mac Goldring (1980) identify six stages of the family’s life cycle:

non-family status: single and unmarried people who have not created their own family;
the family of the newlyweds;
family with small children;
family with teenagers;
exit of grown-up children from the family;
family at a late stage of development.
V. A. Sysenko highlights:

very young marriages – from 0 to 4 years of marriage;
young marriages – from 5 to 9 years;
average marriages – from 10 to 19 years;
older marriages – more than 20 years of marriage.
G. Navaitis considers the following stages of family development:

Premarital communication. At this stage, it is necessary to achieve partial psychological and material independence from the genetic family, gain experience of communicating with the other sex, choose a marriage partner, and gain experience of emotional and business communication with him.
Marriage – acceptance of marital social roles.
Honeymoon stage. Its tasks include: accepting changes in the intensity of feelings, establishing a psychological and spatial distance with genetic families, gaining experience of interaction in solving issues of organizing the daily life of the family, creating intimacy, and primary coordination of family roles.
Young family stage. The scope of the stage: the decision to procreate – the return of the wife to professional activity or the beginning of the child’s visit to a preschool institution.
A Mature family, that is, a family that performs all its functions. If at the fourth stage, the family is supplemented with a new member, then at the fifth stage it is supplemented with new personalities. The roles of parents change accordingly. Their ability to meet the child’s needs for care and security must be complemented by the ability to educate and organize the child’s social ties.
The stage ends when the children reach partial independence from the parent family. Emotional problems of the family can be considered solved when the psychological influence of children and parents on each other comes to an equilibrium, when all family members are conditionally Autonomous.
Family of older people. At this stage, marital relations are resumed, and new content is given to family functions (for example, the educational function is expressed by participation in the upbringing of grandchildren) (Navaitis G., 1999).
The presence of problems among family members may be related to the need for the family to move to a new stage of development and adapt to new conditions. Usually the most stressful are the third stage (according to the classification of Carter and mcgoldring), when the first child appears, and the fifth stage, when the family structure is unstable due to the” arrival “of some family members and the” departure ” of others. Even positive changes can lead to family stress.

Unexpected and especially traumatic experiences, such as unemployment, early death, or the birth of a late child, can make it difficult to meet the challenges of developing a family and moving it to a new stage. Rigid and dysfunctional family relationships also increase the likelihood that even normal family changes will be experienced as a crisis. Changes in the family are considered either normal or”abnormal”. Normal changes in the family are the kind of transformations that the family can expect. And “abnormal”, on the contrary, are sudden and unexpected, such as death, suicide, illness, flight, etc.

According To D. levy (1993), there are the following types of changes in the family:

“retirement” (loss of family members for various reasons);
“increase” (replenishment of the family in connection with the birth, adoption, arrival of a grandfather or grandmother, return from military service);
changes under the influence of social events (economic, depression, earthquake, etc.).);
biological changes (puberty, menopause, etc.);
lifestyle changes (seclusion, relocation, unemployment, etc.));
“violence” (theft, rape, beating, etc.).
In the course of psychotherapy, we check the extent to which the family adapts or does not adapt to these changes, and how flexible the family is in adapting. It is believed that an open and flexible family is the most prosperous and functional.

There is a whole continuum of families from optimal (well-organized, relatively open to change) to significantly dysfunctional (chaotic, rigid, closed systems that do not interact well with the outside world).

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