Development of family science and historical changes in family and marriage
Many studies have been devoted to family and marriage from ancient times to the present day. Even the ancient thinkers Plato and Aristotle justified their views on marriage and the family, criticized the type of family of their time and put forward projects for its transformation.
Science has extensive and reliable information about the nature of family relationships in the history of society. Family change has evolved from promiscuity (promiscuity), group marriage, matriarchy, and Patriarchy to monogamy. The family passed from the lowest form to the highest as society rose through the stages of development.
Based on ethnographic research, there are three epochs in the history of mankind: savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Each of them had its own social institutions, dominant forms of relations between men and women, and its own family.
A great contribution to the study of the dynamics of family relations in the history of society’s development was made by the Swiss historian I. J. bachofen, who wrote the book “Mother’s law” (1861), and the Scottish lawyer J. J. Bachofen. F. McLennan, author of the study “Primitive marriage” (1865).
The early stages of social development were characterized by promiscuity of sexual relations. With the advent of childbirth, there was a group marriage that regulated these relationships. Groups of men and women lived side by side and were in a “communal marriage” – each man considered himself the husband of all women. Gradually, a group family was formed, in which the woman held a special position. Through heterism (gynaecocracy) – relations based on the high status of women in society-all peoples have passed in the direction of individual marriage and family. Children were in the women’s group and only when they grew up they moved to the men’s group. Initially, endogamy dominated-free connections within the genus, then, as a result of the emergence of social “taboos”, exogamy (from Greek. “ekzo” – outside and “Gamos” – marriage) – prohibition of marriages within” their ” families and the need to enter into it with members of other communities. The gens consisted of halves arising from the Union of two linear exogamous tribes, or phratries (a dual-Gentile organization), in each of which men and women could not marry each other, but found a mate among the men and women of the other half of the gens. The taboo of incest (prohibition of incest) was investigated By E. Westermark. He proved that this powerful social norm strengthened the family. There was a consanguineous family: marriage groups were divided by generations, and sexual relations between parents and children were excluded.
Later, the punalual family was formed – a group marriage that included brothers with their wives or a group of sisters with their husbands. In such a family, sexual relations between sisters and brothers were excluded. Kinship was determined on the mother’s side, paternity was unknown. Such families were observed by L. Morgan in the Indian tribes of North America.
Then polygamous marriage was formed: polygamy, polygamy. The savages killed newborn girls, which caused each tribe to have an excess of men, and the women had several husbands. In this situation, when the paternal relationship could not be determined, there was a mother’s right (the right to children remained with the mother).
Polygamy arose because of the significant loss of men during wars. There were few men, and they had several wives.
The leading role in the family passed from the woman (matriarchy) to the man (Patriarchy). At its core, the Patriarchy was related to inheritance law, i.e., the power of the father, not the husband. The woman’s task was to give birth to children, the father’s heirs. She was required to be faithful, since motherhood is always obvious and fatherhood is not.
In the code of the Babylonian king Hammurabi, monogamy was proclaimed several millennia before our era, but at the same time the inequality of men and women was fixed. The monogamous family was dominated by a male father who was interested in keeping property in the hands of blood heirs. The composition of the family was significantly limited, the strictest marital fidelity was required of the woman, and adultery was severely punished. Men, however, were allowed to take concubines. Similar laws were issued in the ancient and middle ages in all countries.
Many ethnographers have noted that prostitution has always existed as the antithesis of monogamy. In some societies, so-called religious prostitution was common: a tribal leader, priest, or other official had the right to spend the wedding night with the bride. The belief prevailed that the priest, using the right of the first night, sanctified marriage. It was considered a great honor for newlyweds if the right of the first night was used by the king himself.
Research on family problems traces the main stages of its evolution: in almost all peoples, the account of maternal kinship preceded the account of paternal kinship; at the primary stage of sexual relations, along with temporary (brief and casual) monogamous relationships, a wide freedom of marital relations prevailed; gradually, the freedom of sexual life was limited, the number of persons who had the right to marry a particular woman (or man) decreased; the dynamics of marriage relations in the history of society consisted in the transition from group marriage to individual marriage.
The relationship between parents and children has also been transformed throughout history. There are six styles of relationships to children.
Infanticide – infanticide, violence (from antiquity to the IV century ad).
Throwing – the child is given to the nurse, to another’s family, to a monastery, etc. (IV–XVII centuries).
Ambivalent-children are not considered full members of the family, they are denied independence, individuality, “sculpt” in the “image and likeness”, in case of resistance severely punished (XIV–XVII centuries.).
Obsessive-the child becomes closer to his parents, his behavior is strictly regulated, the inner world is controlled (XVIII century).
Socializing-parents ‘ efforts are aimed at preparing children for independent life, forming a character; the child is an object of education and training for them (XIX – early XX century).
Helping-parents strive to ensure the individual development of the child, taking into account his aptitudes and abilities, to establish emotional contact (mid-XX century-present).
In the nineteenth century, empirical studies of the emotional sphere of the family, the drives and needs of its members (primarily the work of Frederic Le Pleu) appeared. The family is studied as a small group with its own life cycle, history of origin, functioning, and disintegration. The subject of research is feelings, passions, mental and moral life. In the historical dynamics of the development of family relations, Le Pleu stated the direction from the Patriarchal type of family to the unstable one, with the disparate existence of parents and children, with the weakening of the father’s authority, which leads to the disorganization of society.
Further research on relationships in the family focuses on the study of interaction, communication, interpersonal consent, proximity of family members in various social and family situations, on the organization of family life and the factors of stability of the family as a group (the work of piaget, Freud and their followers).
The development of society determined the change in the system of values and social norms of marriage and the family that support the extended family, the socio-cultural norms of high birth rate were replaced by the social norms of low birth rate.