“Psychoanalytic” model of family education (part 1)
In the classical psychoanalysis of Freud, the influence of parents on the child’s mental development is given a Central place. In the first years of a child’s life, the parents (and especially the mother) are the persons with whom the most important early experiences are associated. The usual daily actions of parents to care for a child have an important psychological effect.
The way and completeness of meeting the biological needs of an infant at the stage of breastfeeding, giving him the opportunity to enjoy sucking, lay the foundations of trust, affection, and activity in relation to other people for the rest of his life. Flexibility, tolerance, reasonable demands of parents in the process of accustoming the child to the toilet, to neatness, support for the child’s efforts to control themselves contribute to the emergence of adequate forms of self-regulation, positive self-esteem, even creative thinking.
Excessive, insufficient or inadequate satisfaction of needs and presentation of requirements at the early stages of psychosexual development leads, according to Freud, to clearly expressed peculiar deviations in personal development (for example, forms of infantile, “residual” behavior are fixed for a long time, an “oral-passive” or “anal-retaining” type of personality develops).
Of particular importance for the folding of the personality structure, for the emergence of the superego, is the nature of relationships with parents at the age of three or six. The dominant psychosexual conflict of this stage of the ” Oedipus complex “(in girls, the “Electra complex”) consists in experiencing a sense of love, an unconscious desire to possess a parent of the opposite sex and eliminate the parent of their own sex. According to Freud, identification with the parent of one’s own sex, borrowing its norms and values, and increasing similarity in actions and intonations leads to overcoming the complex, to the formation of a more Mature personality structure.
It is the first three stages of personal development that are of key importance. Communication with parents in early years, their influence on how to solve typical age-related contradictions, conflicts and failures of adaptation affect later, are manifested by characteristic problems already in an adult. Negative children’s experience leads to infantilism, egocentricity, increased aggressiveness, which is a personal prerequisite for difficulties in implementing their own parental role, to the rejection of their own child.
American psychologist E. Erickson considered the formation of a person’s personality throughout his life from birth to death. Based initially on psychoanalytic premises, he came to the conclusion that a person should adapt more rationally to the social environment, that it is necessary for each individual to solve rather than psychosexual, but psychosocial conflicts, and overcome life difficulties. At the same time, in the early years, a person experiences significant influence from the family, and later-from the wider social environment: neighbors, classmates, schools and other social institutions, cultural and historical conditions.
At the first stages of life, the child is mostly in the zone of parental influence. The basics of forming a healthy personality-a basic sense of trust in the world (internal certainty), autonomy (independence, a sense of expanding self-control capabilities), initiative (the ability to “attack” the task for the sake of experiencing their own activity-motor and social) – are formed in the conditions of a competent parental position (confidence, reliability, encouraging independent actions) and increasing the psychological space controlled by the child himself.
It is important to note that in adulthood, the performance of the parental function (in the narrow sense-in relation to their own children and in the broad sense-care for the younger generations of society, about their future) is one of the main directions of personal development. Productivity, generativity of an adult, understood as helping children in their development, is opposed to inertia, stagnation, and personal degradation in adulthood. The achievements of descendants, children, grandchildren, and students make an important contribution to the sense of personal self-realization in old age.
E. Fromm’s point of view on the role of mother and father in the upbringing of children, on the peculiarities of maternal and paternal love, was widely recognized.
A mother’s love is unconditional: a child is loved simply for what it is. This is a passive experience, a mother’s love does not need to be sought. The mother herself must have faith in life, not be anxious, only then will she be able to convey a sense of security to the child. “In the ideal case, the mother’s love does not try to prevent the child from growing up, does not try to assign a reward for helplessness” (FOOTNOTE: Fromm E. the Art of love. – Minsk, 1991.). For the most part, a father’s love is conditioned love; it is necessary and, most importantly, can be earned by achievements, performance of duties, order in Affairs, compliance with expectations, and discipline.
The Mature person builds images of parents within himself: “In this development from motherly-centered to fatherly-centered attachment and their final synthesis, the basis of spiritual health and maturity consists” (FOOTNOTE: Ibid.).
Key concepts of the parenting program from a psychoanalytic point of view: attachment, security, establishing close relationships between children and adults, creating conditions for establishing interaction between the child and parents in the first hours after birth.
The attitude of F. Dolto, a representative of the Paris school of Freudianism, to the child’s personality is extremely respectful, even reverent. She strongly emphasizes that the mother should strive to establish contact with the newborn, and contact is speech. Sometimes it is really a question of life and health of the baby, who suffers extremely when forced to separate from the sick mother, but calms down, according to Dolto’s observations, if he explains the reason for the temporary separation.