Methods and techniques of educational influence
1. Method of modification, retraining. The art and science of this approach is to isolate small elements of behavior, highlight positive aspects, and try to approve them as much as possible.
The initial stage of this re-training is to assess the child’s behavior (the state of his skills). It is necessary to take into account the child’s personality in terms of motivation factors (reinforcements): which of them is the most effective for each particular child. Ways of forming behavior: positive reinforcement-encouragement, reward; negative reinforcement-punishment; lack of reinforcement-zero attention. In most cases, approval is used for correct actions (in the form of an adult’s interest, encouragement and praise, or material reward or assignment of points, symbolic reinforcements). In addition, parents are encouraged to use methods of ignoring or refusing to reinforce unacceptable behavioral responses of children. The complexity of these methods is that they are effective only if they are applied consistently and very accurately. Negative sanctions are used to prevent inappropriate behavior.
2. The modeling method assumes the effect of transferring the desired behavior, and the parent is a model of correct actions.
3. The step-by-step change method is based on the fact that explicit changes in behavior are achieved as a result of steps, each of which is so small that it almost does not differ from the previous one.
For example, this method is used to eliminate excessive attachment to objects in many autistic children. For example, one seven-year-old autistic boy insisted on always wearing a large leather belt, which significantly limited his activity. The mother of the child was asked to gradually shorten the belt at night, inch by inch, and to insist that at certain pleasant moments for the child, such as during meals, he put the belt aside. After two weeks, he was satisfied with a piece of skin 10 cm long, which he put aside if necessary.
4. The desensitization method is designed to overcome fears and phobic reactions in children and is used as a variant of the method of gradual changes.
This method of behavioral training is based on two principles: a) a combination of anxiety-inducing stimuli with the experience of relaxation and pleasure, which should gradually replace the feeling of fear; b) a systematic movement from the least exciting situations to the most stressful, causing the maximum anxiety. The desensitization technique has been used with great success to correct conditions such as animal phobia, fear of water, school phobia, and fear of food.
Described the treatment of a boy who was very afraid of dogs. Initially, he was presented with small furry animals, such as Guinea pigs, which almost did not cause him anxiety, and then gradually, after the boy got used to such stimulation, the situation became more complicated until he was able to meet and pet large and playful dogs without fear.
5. The “off time” technique, or timeout, is used as an alternative to punishment methods.
So, the parents of two young boys who were constantly stubborn and “destroyed” everything around, were able to use time-out as an effective method of influence. For disobedience, children were punished with five-minute time-outs, and if children started behaving well, their behavior was supported by either parental approval or financial encouragement.
6. The technique of “hypercorrection” is aimed at eliminating the damage caused by negative misconduct, and mastering the opposite, correct forms of behavior. The method of restorative hypercorrection requires that a child who is characterized by destructive behavior, eliminate the consequences of their offense. For example, a child who throws food on the floor may be asked to wash, clean, and RUB the floor with mastic. According to the positive activity hypercorrection method, a child who throws food on the floor can be asked to set the table at the appointed time and help arrange the food.
Representatives of the behavioral direction believe that the manifestation of parents ‘ warm and tender feelings for the child should be conditioned. However, critics believe that because a child learns to act only for a reward, this becomes his value system, and he demonstrates desirable behaviors only when it is profitable.