“Behavioral” model of family education
The roots of this trend go back to behavioral psychology (j.Watson, B. F. Skinner). The main focus of the model is on the child’s behavior technique and discipline.
An experimental study of the appearance of new behaviors in “a living piece of meat that can give a small number of simple reactions”, allowed j.Watson and other behaviorists came to the conclusion that the human psyche has a minimum of innate components, its development depends mainly on the social environment and living conditions, that is, on the stimuli supplied by the environment. The environment was considered as the immediate environment of the child, a situation that consists of specific life situations, which in turn consist of sets of different stimuli and can be decomposed into chains of stimuli. External and environmental influences determine the content of a child’s behavior and the nature of its development. Hence, the main thing is the special organization of the child’s environment.
Watson emphasizes the need for a scientific approach to parenting: “humanity would undoubtedly be greatly improved if It could suspend the birth of children for twenty years (except for children brought up for experimental purposes) and devote these years to an intensive study of the laws of child development, and then, on the basis of the acquired knowledge, begin a new education, more scientific and Psychological care of the child. – Moscow, 1930. – P. 7.).
The Central problem of the concepts of social learning, which arose on the basis of classical behaviorism, is socialization as a process of transformation of an initially asocial humanoid being into a full-fledged member of human society, as a progress from a biological state to a social one. The problem of acquiring new social behavior is the main one. How does socialization occur, i.e., the transmission of behaviors, norms, motives, values, and emotional responses? The main answer is the result of learning.
The radical representative of behaviorism, B. Skinner, recognized two main types of behavior: Respondent behavior (as a response to a familiar stimulus) and operant behavior, defined and controlled by the result that follows it. Thus, according to Skinner, there is no free will of the individual, the behavior of the individual is under the control of the social environment. The method of successive approximations, or formation, developed by him, is based on reinforcing behavior when it becomes similar to the desired one (a token reward system).
R. sire used psychoanalytic concepts (suppression, regression, projection, identification) and the principles of the theory of learning to analyze the influence of parents on the child’s development. He considered the formation of psychological dependence of the infant on the mother in dyadic interaction, the folding of various forms of dependent behavior (the search for positive and negative attention, the desire for constant confirmation, touch, presence nearby, etc.), and later – in preschool and school age – the stages of overcoming children’s variants of dependence. The mother and father act as the main reinforcing intermediaries, identifying behaviors that need to be changed, helping to assimilate more Mature behaviors.
A. bandura-neobeheviorist, representative of the socio-cognitive direction in the study of personality, answering the question about the mechanisms of socialization, assigned a special role to learning through observation, imitation, imitation, identification and modeling. For him, parental behavior is mainly a model for extracting some common features, rules of behavior, and a role model for the child in trying to build their own behavior. Reinforcement is necessary in order to preserve the behavior that arose from imitation.
The main ideas of the organization of education as behavioral (behavioral) therapy are that parents are considered, on the one hand, as elements of the environment, on the other-as agents of socialization and “constructors” of the child’s behavior. In order to modify a child’s behavioral responses, one must learn to analyze behavior in terms of stimuli, consequences, and reinforcements, and rely on a conditioned expression of love for the child.