Modern research on family and marriage relations
Currently, the problems of matrimony-parenthood-kinship pay more attention not only in theory, but also in practice. The works of Yu. I. Aleshina, V. N. Druzhinin, S. V. Kovalev, A. S. Spivakovskaya, E. G. Eidemiller and other scientists emphasize that the family directly or indirectly reflects all the changes taking place in society, although it has a relative independence and stability. Despite all the changes and upheavals, the family as a social institution has persisted. In recent years, its ties with society have weakened, which has negatively affected both the family and society as a whole, which already feels the need to restore previous values, study new trends and processes, and organize practical training of young people for family life.
The psychology of family relations develops in connection with the problems of prevention of nervous and mental diseases, as well as problems of family education. The issues considered by family psychology are diverse: problems of marital, parent-child relationships, relationships with older generations in the family, development directions, diagnostics, family counseling, and correction of relationships.
The family is the object of research in many Sciences – sociology, Economics, law, Ethnography, psychology, demography, pedagogy, etc.Each of them, in accordance with its subject, studies the specific aspects of the functioning and development of the family. Economy – consumer aspects of the family and its participation in the production of material goods and services. Ethnography – features of the way of life and life of families with different ethnic characteristics. Demography – the role of the family in the process of population reproduction. Pedagogy – its educational opportunities.
The integration of these areas of study of the family allows us to get a holistic view of the family as a social phenomenon that combines the features of a social institution and a small group.
Psychology of family relations focuses on the study of patterns of interpersonal relationships in the family, intra-family relationships (their stability, stability) from the standpoint of influence on personal development. Knowledge of patterns allows you to conduct practical work with families, diagnose and help rebuild family relationships. The main parameters of interpersonal relationships are status-role differences, psychological distance, relationship valency, dynamics, and stability.
The family as a social institution has its own development trends. Nowadays, the rejection of the traditional requirement for the family in its unambiguous sequence: marriage, sexuality, procreation (birth, birth) is no longer considered a violation of socio-cultural norms (birth of a child outside of marriage, sexual relations before marriage, the self-worth of intimate relations between husband and wife, etc.).
Many modern women do not perceive motherhood as an exclusively marital attribute. One third of families consider the birth of a child to be a hindrance to marriage, and women are more likely than men (36 and 29%, respectively). There was a socio – cultural normative system-procreative ethics: it is preferable to marry, but not necessarily; it is desirable to have children, but their absence is not an anomaly; sexual life outside of marriage is not a mortal sin.
A new direction in the development of the psychology of family relations is the development of its methodological foundations, based on which you can avoid fragmentation, randomness, and intuitionality. According to the basic methodological principle of consistency, family relationships are a structured integrity, the elements of which are interconnected and mutually conditioned. These are marital, parent-child, child-parent, child-child, parent-parent, parent-child relationships.
An important methodological principle – synergetic-allows us to consider the dynamics of family relations from the standpoint of non-linearity, non-equilibrium, taking into account the crisis periods.
Currently, family psychotherapy is being actively developed, based on a systematic, scientific approach, integrating the accumulated experience, and identifying General patterns of therapy for families with relationship disorders.