The work of the psychologist with the teaching staff
The psychologist is called to do everything possible to ensure a real humanization of the relationship between children and teachers in kindergarten, to replace the usual orientation of the staff to perform programs with a desire and desire to go from the child, his needs and interests. And this means, first of all, the rejection of the disciplinary model of education and the transition to a person-oriented one. This transition is difficult, especially where the number of children’s groups is high, where the teacher works without an assistant. As far as possible, the psychologist should look for and suggest ways to change the organization of children’s life in groups, dividing them into subgroups according to different criteria (success in the classroom, attractiveness of a particular activity, personal liking, etc.).
The psychologist helps educators to implement an individual approach in communicating with children. The study of children’s groups and individual children provides a wealth of material for understanding the problems of intellectual and emotional development that require special attention of an adult. Of course, educators will first of all contact a psychologist about children who make it difficult to work with the group: aggressive, undisciplined, etc.However, the psychologist should also pay their attention to such students who, without being a hindrance, are characterized by personal distress — shy, timid, unsuccessful, lonely. It is impossible to foresee and describe in advance the features of the approach to a particular child, the measures that should be taken to improve his emotional well-being. Such measures are developed jointly by the psychologist and the educator in each case.
Often, one of the main reasons for the child’s distress is the incorrect attitude of the educator himself. If the teacher does not look for reasons that cause certain adverse features of the pupil’s behavior, then there may be difficulties in the interaction of the child with the adult. Therefore, it is not always enough to simply inform the teacher of your diagnosis and offer the appropriate prescription. It is often necessary to work in depth and systematically with the teaching staff, making their pedagogical attitudes flexible in relation to individual children or even to the group as a whole.
The psychologist can implement various types of work with the kindergarten team that help improve the teachers ‘ own emotional state, relieve tension, and increase attention to the psychological aspects of working with children. It is good if the kindergarten manages to allocate a special room for staff rest, where they will discuss difficult situations in groups with the team and jointly plan ways to resolve them. The psychologist can identify the most powerful aspects of each caregiver and help them adjust their work with children so that these sides come to the fore. This will undoubtedly benefit both the educator himself, increasing his self-esteem and creating an opportunity to reveal his own creative potential, and children.
The topics of lectures, conversations, and consultations conducted by a psychologist can vary depending on specific conditions. This work can be carried out with educators and parents at the same time. Some topics can be recommended as common to all preschool institutions. Here is a sample list of them.
The role of the child’s natural properties, living conditions and upbringing in his mental development.
Psychological characteristics of children of different preschool age groups.
Developing value of different types of children’s activities (play, drawing, construction, etc.).
Influence of adult relationships in the family on the child’s mental development.
How to ensure the emotional well-being of a child.
Features of the approach to difficult children.
Adaptation of a child to a children’s institution.
Age-related development crises and conditions that contribute to their successful resolution.
Psychological readiness of the child for school.
The General focus of the conversations is to give an idea that the child is not just preparing for the future life, but is already living, and the most important duty of adults is to make this life as full-blooded and happy as possible. This does not mean that adults should follow the child’s wishes in everything. The task of the psychologist, educator to make learning interesting and desirable for him. The main way to do this is to involve the child in accessible and attractive activities.
It is necessary to convince the teaching staff that the child is a unique, inimitable personality with its own characteristics, inclinations, that there is no only correct way in development, but there are many different ways leading to the same goal — the education of a healthy, creative and moral individual. The child should be offered those activities that are more suitable for him, his type of temperament, intellectual characteristics, personal inclinations . A wonderful psychologist L. S. Vygotsky said that preschool education differs from school education in that the child learns according to our program to the extent that it becomes his own. There is no need to overload the child, trying to give him as much as possible. After all, there is a wide mutual compensation between the types of children’s activities, and it is necessary to use those that are better organized by adults and to which the child himself is more inclined.
The psychologist can help the kindergarten teaching staff, and first of all the teachers, to reveal their capabilities and creative potential with special classes.Teachers ‘ awareness of the position they take in relation to children can help to open up their creative potential. There are several educational positions, each of which may appear in its pure form, but there may be combinations of different positions. The full development of children’s abilities is possible when the teacher manages to take a position that promotes this development.
7 educational positions are described below. Six of them do not provide full development of abilities, the seventh, adequate, educational position leads to the disclosure of the creative and personal potential of each child. All positions are presented through images, which will allow the reader to better understand each of them, as well as the ways in which the child is affected.
Karabas-Barabas. Karabas-Barabas needs obedient and skillful performers of his performances. To achieve his goals, he uses the following methods of influence: lash, shout, dictate, punishment, instruction. Karabas does not teach, but trains, achieving a certain success: the dolls master the set of knowledge, skills and abilities that are needed for Barabas ‘ performances. Dolls are afraid of the trainer, few run away from him, most do not dare to run away. But both of them do not show their true feelings in his presence, paralyzed by fear of him.
The position of the educator — Karabas-Barabas leads, first, to the fact that the development of children’s abilities is blocked. Instead, children master a set of tasks set by the teacher, skills, and abilities. Secondly, children have a duality (I will do this, I will tell Maria Ivanovna, but in fact I will do it, I will think differently), which ultimately leads to a double morality.
Malvina is a well-bred girl. She knows exactly what to wash your hands before eating, brush your teeth, read books, etc .D. she sincerely believes that everyone should follow these rules. When Pinocchio’s behavior does not fit into the norms that she considers the only correct ones, Malvina puts the naughty boy in the closet. Malvina’s actions are motivated by those norms that she considers true, but she lacks flexibility, she does not allow other ways of behavior, solving problems, resolving conflicts. Therefore, in an unusual, extreme situation of escape from Karabas-Barabas, Malvina is helpless, unable to take the initiative, offer a non-standard way out of the situation. The position of the teacher-Malvina leads children to limited mental activity, reproduction of stereotypical ways of behavior and problem solving. This is because Malvina offers herself to children as the only role model, which does not contribute to the formation of their own motivations. Unmotivated activity discourages interest in cognitive tasks, extinguishes children’s curiosity, thereby limiting the development of abilities.
Little red riding Hood behaves as it is typical for a preschool child. She is careless, emotional, fun, and naughty. Little red Riding hood does not foresee the results of his actions. My mother told her to take gifts to her sick grandmother, go through the woods without talking to the wolf. Little red riding Hood went, but at the same time she collected flowers and talked to the wolf and gave her grandmother’s address. Little red riding Hood is careless, hoping that everything will somehow work out.
The method of influence of the educator who has taken the position of red riding Hood is the presentation of his natural situational “I”, which can be very attractive for children. Attractiveness is based on their similarity. This is dangerous for children, because the teacher-Red riding Hood as a model sets an unproductive option from the point of view of mental development. Instead of real ones, they offer wonderful solutions, and they do not need a forecast, anticipation, or action planning. The position of the teacher-red riding Hood leads children to difficulties in planning and predicting their own actions, which is manifested in disorganized behavior and ineffective ways of solving cognitive tasks. In children who have appropriated as a model the way of behavior of red riding Hood, the regulation of their own actions is violated, efforts to overcome momentary desires are not formed, and the volitional regulation of behavior is violated.