Problems of a young family
Most psychologists and sociologists who study family relations emphasize the importance of the initial period of family development (Matskovsky, M. S., Kharchev, A. G., 1978; Sysenko, V. A., 1981; Dementieva, I. F., 1991; Trapeznikova, T. M., 1988; Richardson, R., 1994; Grebennikov, I. F., 1991, etc.). “Like all living things, the family is the weakest at the moment of origin” (Yurkevich N. G., 1971, p. 88).
In Russian psychology, as a rule, the periodization of family development, proposed by V. A. Sysenko (1981, 1989), is used. According to this periodization, the term “young family” is understood quite broadly – “very young marriages” – from 0 to 4 years of experience and “young marriages” from 5 to 9 years. Many researchers identify the first year or two of joint life as the first period of family development. The importance of this particular segment of the family’s life cycle is indicated by the fact that, according to various sources, 20% of the population falls apart during this time. (Trapeznikova T. M., 1989) up to one third of all families (Sysenko V. A., 1981). Perhaps for a deeper understanding of the problems of a young family should consider the relationship in it before and after the birth of first child as a baby and the family moves to a new stage regardless of the timing of its existence. Thus, Carter and Mac Goldring (1980) call the second and third stage of the family life cycle a newlywed family and a family with young children (CIT. by: Levi D., 1993). Thus, the family before and after the birth of the first child is at different stages of life, despite the fact that this change may occur within a year or less from the date of marriage. According to American family researchers, newlyweds can often afford a lot, especially when they both work: buy cars, furniture, and enjoy outdoor activities. The transition to parenthood dramatically changes the way of life. (AldousJ., 1978).
O. A. Dobrynina (1993), who studied workers ‘families, States that the most stressful periods of family existence are observed in spouses from the group of “very young marriages” (0-4 years) and “older marriages” (more than 20 years of experience). In young families, a model of future family relationships is formed – the distribution of power and responsibilities, spiritual ties between spouses, the search for a type of relationship that would satisfy both of them, and common family values are developed. For young spouses, the problems of psychological and household adaptation are updated: issues of leadership, empathy, and distribution of household loads are solved. In young families, there was an increased need for recognition and mutual understanding, but the effectiveness of psychological support for young spouses is the lowest in comparison with older marriages.